With diabetes progression, there is a risk of severe short and long-term complications. Blindness, amputations, stroke, cognitive decline, decreased quality of life, and premature death can occur. (Ducat et al., 2014; Kruse et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2008)
Diabetes manifests itself when insulin produced in the body cannot adequately metabolize the sugar in the blood, causing blood sugar levels to spike. There are many causes attributed to the emergence of diabetes. The latest thinking is that an imbalance in the gut microbiota could contribute to diabetes.
Unable to produce enough insulin, the body cannot fully break available blood sugar into energy leading to a rise in blood sugar levels. Diabetes will appear when the conversion process itself has become retarded. The cells of the body have become resistant to the available insulin. As a consequence, blood sugar levels rise. The medical name for such a condition is insulin resistance.
Type 2 diabetes patients are at high risk of developing coronary artery disease. The risk is enhanced with high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), decreased quantity of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high blood pressure, high levels of blood sugar, and smoking. (Turner et al., 1989) Specific forms of hypertension therapy have also led to an increase in the risk of becoming diabetic. (Gress et al., 2000)
As the blood sugar levels rise, the body’s ability to metabolize and filter out excess molecules from the kidneys is impaired. Overwork of the kidneys causes these to leak. Protein molecules are seen in the urine. Uncontrolled kidney failure is common In diabetes progression.