Ginseng comes from the fleshy roots of perennial slow-growing plants belonging to 11 different species and two different genera. There are three popular varieties—Asian, American, and Siberian.

Asian or Korean ginseng is the oldest. The most famous and commonly found ginseng comes from Panax ginseng. American ginseng comes from Panax quinquefolius. Siberian ginseng is from a different genus: Eleutherococcus senticosus.

Three more species of the Panax genus are used in traditional medicine: Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng), Panax japonicas (Japanese ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (Pseudoginseng). Both Panax and Eleutherococcus species belong to the Araliaceae family.

Traditionally, ginseng is regarded as both a physical and mental restorant. It is said to improve the cognitive ability of patients, improve the quality of life and behavior. Ginsenoides and other constituents in ginseng possess immunosuppressive properties.


Ashwagandha is the Ayurveda name of the Withania somnifera herb found in the Indian sub-continent. It belongs to the Solanaceae family. It is also called Indian ginseng.

It possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antistress, antitumor, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and many more for treatment biological approaches.

In addition to this, it reduced the level of reactive oxygen species, modulated mitochondrial function, regulated apoptosis, and enhanced endothelial function. It was documented in research to treat various clinical conditions related to the nervous system (John Dar et al., 2012).


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