Piperine Congeners as Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation.
Successful vascular healing after percutaneous coronary interventions is related to inhibiting abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and efficient re-endothelialization. In the search for vascular smooth muscle cell anti-proliferative agents from natural sources, we identified piperine (1), the main pungent constituent of the fruits from Piper nigrum (black pepper). Piperine inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation with an IC50 of 21.6 µM, as quantified by a resazurin conversion assay. Investigations of ten piperamides isolated from black pepper fruits and 15 synthesized piperine derivatives resulted in the identification of three potent vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation inhibitors: the natural alkaloid pipertipine (4), and the two synthetic derivatives (2E,4E)-N,N-dibutyl-5-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl) penta-2,4-dienamide (14) and (E)-N,N-dibutyl-3-(naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)acrylamide (20). They showed IC50 values of 3.38, 6.00, and 7.85 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the synthetic compound (2E,4E)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(piperidin-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (12) was found to be cell-type selective by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation with an IC50 of 11.8 µM without influencing the growth of human endothelial cells.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.