Conventional medicine practitioners prescribe medicine based on their track record. Regulators must approve the medications, like the USFDA and other national regulators. Regulatory approvals require drugs to be tested in human clinical trials. The process of conducting such trials is laid out.
In a nutshell, the efficacy and safety of a medication on a set of people are tested. The data generated from these trials are compared with a group of individuals who have been concurrently administered placebos. The data on efficacy and safety is carefully recorded and analyzed. The findings o the trials are then peer-reviewed by an independent set of experts. Such results are often published in an independent scientific journal.
The trial data is then submitted to a regulator who independently reviews it. If the review concludes that the medicine is safe and efficacious, it is then permitted for use. Conventional medicine practitioners are now allowed to prescribe these medications to their patients.
Herbal medicine conventionally does not follow the prescribed clinical trial process. Herbal medicine practitioners directly prescribe these medications. Regulatory approval for such treatment is not available. Given this limitation of herbal remedies, regulators in some parts of the world also require herbal medicine to conduct human clinical trials and demonstrate its safety and efficacy.
Herbal medicine practitioners must adopt some modern scientific practices to popularise herbal solutions. I do observe moves in this direction taking place worldwide. The change is slow but is happening. Patients are in desperate need of the best available solution that will help provide relief.

Additional reading:

My books on herbal medicine

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