There are three main types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is often inherited. The ability of the body to produce insulin is impaired. It is due to damage or destruction of the insulin-producing organ pancreas. Such patients require insulin regularly to prevent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
Then we have gestational diabetes which, is seen during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes affects the mother and the child.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the third type and accounts for approximately 90 percent of all diabetes. Diabetes manifests itself when insulin produced in the body cannot adequately metabolize the sugar in the blood, causing blood sugar levels to spike.
We need the energy to live, grow, exercise, and survive. When we eat, in the digestive process, sugar is produced. Sugar finds its way from the digestive system into the blood, where insulin released from the pancreas helps break it down to release energy. This energy then becomes available to the body for its survival and other functions.
Excess sugar not required by us is converted into fats and stored in the liver. This stored fat is broken down into energy and made available when demand exceeds supply.
Insulin plays a blood sugar regulatory role. It prevents blood sugar levels from either rising too high. When blood sugar levels get too high, such a condition is called hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia, on the other hand, is a low blood sugar condition.
There are many causes attributed to the emergence of diabetes. The latest thinking is that an imbalance in the gut microbiota could contribute to diabetes. There are multiple causes of insulin resistance. Hepatitis C virus infection in the liver is one reported cause. (Petit et al., 2001) The pancreas themselves have become calcified and are unable to produce enough insulin is another reason. (Malka et al., 2000). Multiple risk factors like overweight or obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, enhanced cholesterol levels, smoking, gene dysfunction can cause diabetes. Racial factors also have been found to strengthen risk. (Feskens et al., 1989; Choi et al., 2001; Salman. I et al., 2013; Knowler et al.,1990)
Other risk factors identified are – strong family history of diabetes, age, obesity, and physical inactivity. (Fletcher et al., 2002).
Diabetes mellitus (Type2 diabetes) is a lifestyle disease, but that alone is not the only cause. Lifestyle modification can help in reversing this disease.