Saffron is a perennial herb unknown in the wild and has been cultivated for more than 3,000 years. It is believed to be a mutant of the wild C. cartwrightianus of the Iridaceae family. Its key constituents are safranal, crocin, carotenoids, glycoside forms, terpene derivatives, anthocyanins, flavonoids, the vitamins riboflavin and thiamine, and amino acids, proteins, and starch.
Saffron was also one of the Greco-Roman times’ most valued and most expensive aromatic spices. It was associated with fertility and romance, and nobles used it to perfume clothes and baths. Homer states that Greek gods Zeus and Jupiter lay on a bed of saffron to enhance amorous emotions.
Traditionally, the species is used for stomach cramps, flatulence, respiratory ailments, blood disorders, heart diseases, and an aphrodisiac. It is a folk remedy for headaches and colds and has antidiarrheal and antidysentery properties. It is useful in treating scanty menstruation and poor seminal mobility.
Modaghegh et al. (2008) conducted trials on a sample of 10 people who were administered saffron tablets and showed a reduction in both high systolic and arterial blood pressure.
Crocus sativus (common name saffron) may alleviate symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, according to a 2008 study published in the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. However, because it is used to break blood clots, those on blood-thinning medications, or women who experience heavy menstruation, should avoid saffron altogether.

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