Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Without effective adaptation and genetic improvement with each degree Celsius increase in global mean temperature, a reduction in global yields of wheat will occur by 6 percent, rice by 3.2 percent, maize by 7.4 percent, and soybean by 3.1 percent.
The Food Policy Report of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2009, has estimated that South Asia, in particular, will be hit particularly hard. Large-scale yield declines for the most important food crops will be seen.
Climate change will result in additional price increases for the most important crops – rice, wheat, maize, and soybeans. Rainfed maize and irrigated and rainfed wheat will see substantially reduced yields. Sub-Saharan Africa will see mixed results with small declines or increases in maize yields and large negative effects on rainfed wheat. The Latin America and Caribbean region will show mixed yield effects.
Calorie availability in 2050 will be lower and is expected to decline relative to 2000 levels throughout the developing world. The decline in calorie availability will increase child malnutrition by twenty percent. Aggressive agricultural productivity investments of $US7.1 to 7.3 billion are needed to raise calorie consumption to offset the negative impacts of climate change on the health and well-being of children.
Unconventional food production technologies appear to be the solution to making world food secure.

Climate change: Financial risks and opportunities

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