There are three main types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes: The ability of the body to produce insulin is impaired. It is due to damage or destruction of the insulin-producing organ pancreas. Such patients require insulin regularly to prevent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes is often inherited.
Then we have gestational diabetes which, is seen during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes affects the mother and the child.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the third type and accounts for approximately 90 percent of all diabetes.
Diabetes manifests itself when insulin produced in the body cannot adequately metabolize the sugar in the blood, causing blood sugar levels to spike.
Another reason is that the conversion process itself has become retarded. The cells of the body have become resistant to the available insulin. As a consequence, blood sugar levels rise. The medical name for such a condition is insulin resistance.
There are multiple causes of insulin resistance. Hepatitis C virus infection in the liver is one reported cause. (Petit et al., 2001) The pancreas themselves have become calcified and are unable to produce enough insulin is another reason. (Malka et al., 2000). There are other causes of insulin resistance.
The latest thinking is that an imbalance in the gut microbiota could contribute to diabetes.
Multiple risk factors like overweight or obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, enhanced cholesterol levels, smoking, gene dysfunction can cause diabetes. Racial factors also have been found to strengthen risk. (Feskens et al., 1989; Choi et al., 2001; Salman. I et al., 2013; Knowler et al.,1990)
Other risk factors identified are – strong family history of diabetes, age, obesity, and physical inactivity. (Fletcher et al., 2002)